Questions & Answers

Q: What is ASDS™?
A: ASDS™ is an abbreviation for Ammonia Storage and Delivery System – the name of our core technology that doses gaseous ammonia directly into the diesel exhaust line reducing NOx and NO2 by Selective Catalyst Reduction.
   
Q: What is AdAmmine™?
A: AdAmmine™ is the solid material that makes ASDS™ the most effective system on the market for reducing NOx. Just as a sponge can absorb water, AdAmmine™ binds ammonia (NH3), and it can hold large quantities. AdAmmine™ is safe to handle, and can release its content of ammonia gradually if heated. A block of AdAmmine™ holds ~450g ammonia per liter solid for use in the NOx conversion.
   
Q: Are you confident the ASDS™ solution will reduce NOx significantly?
A: Yes, we are. Real Driving Emissions (RDE) data from the retrofit of 300 city buses in Copenhagen, have proven a removal up to 99 % NOx and 99 % NO2. Furthermore, PEMS testing in Copenhagen done by the independent test lab Emissions Analytics has proven the capability of our technology to meet Euro VI in city driving.
   
Q: You claim that the ASDS™ system is harmless. But if that is the case, how do you release the ammonia gas?
A: AdBlue® uses the temperature of the exhaust to vaporize the water and thereby release the ammonia gas. The ASDS™ works by heating the cartridge to 55° C and at that temperature the gas is released from the AdAmmine™ material inside the cartridge, which is then dosed into the exhaust line.
   
Q: How much power will it take to heat the cartridge to a temperature of 55° C?
A: It takes about 150 Watt on a typical bus, or the same as two headlights on the vehicle.
   
Q: How much will the vehicle contaminate from engine ignition until the cartridge reaches a temperature of 55° C and the ammonia starts to work?
A: The ASDS™ is equipped with a small and rapidly heated start-up cartridge unit that is permanently fitted to the vehicle and refills from the main cartridges. This start-up cartridge doses ammonia until the main cartridge is ready to take over.
   
Q: AdBlue® normally works at catalyst temperatures above 220° C. At which temperatures does ASDS™ work?
A: ASDS™ works down to 100° C, but is normally switched on when the catalyst and NOx sensors are heated up to around 1400 C. Future catalyst and sensors will likely be efficient even further down in temperature and will then benefit even further from the low temperature advantages of the ASDS™ technology.
   
Q: How often do we have to refill ASDS™ with cartridges compared to refilling AdBlue?
A: A Euro V/EEV vehicle with typical city driving conditions doing 50.000 to 75.000 km a year, will have to exchange 1 cartridge per week as a rule of thumb. Our installation has a two-cartridge system. A cartridge contains ammonia equivalent to 20 liters of AdBlue®.
   
Q: How long time does it take to do the refill compared to refilling AdBlue®?
A: It is very easy to exchange the cartridge. Actually it can be be done in 30-60 seconds and there is no risk of spilling liquid or pouring wrong liquid in the wrong tank.
   
Q: Will other emissions be effected by using ASDS™- such as CO, particulates, aldehydes etc.?
A: No.
   
Q: What about the maintenance of ASDS™ – how difficult is it?
A: The system is very simple to service. It is virtually maintenance free, but complying with good practice keeping the equipment in good condition is expected.
   
Q: Is there a risk of ASDS™ overdosing ammonia and thereby contaminating the environment with ammonia?
A: The SCR control uses NOx sensors to measure before and after the catalyst, with a feedback loop. This includes using the cross sensitivity of the NOx sensor if there would be an ammonia “slip”.
   
Q: Can ASDS™ be retrofitted on all Euro I to VI emission standard engine solutions?
A: Basically yes. Depending on what you want to achieve, you may also need to retrofit a SCRT-system in order to reach Euro VI from a Euro V level for example.
   
Q: What is the price of ASDS™?
A: In order to provide a competitive price, we would need to further analyze your needs and vehicle fleet.